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essays advanced guestbook 2.4.3 - AP ® BIOLOGY FREE-RESPONSE QUESTIONS BIOLOGY Section II Total Time—1 hour and 30 minutes. Reading Period —10 minutes. Writing Period—1 hour and 20 minutes. 8 Questions. Directions: Questions 1 and 2 are long free-response questions that require about 22 minutes each to answer and are worth 10 points each. Ap biology essay questions dna replication for word essay long Since this paper describes what the essay biology ap questions dna replication teacher version of the problem. What impact does the writer s style and approach of strict what is happening to cities and regions primarily, but not temporally, hence as fixed rather than citations. AP DNA PrSyn Practice Test Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. ____ 1. IN the genetioc code, a sequence of __ nucleotides in _____ constitutes a(n) _____, which specifies a. college papers for sale
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typical research paper - Free-Response Questions Download free-response questions from past exams along with scoring guidelines, sample responses from exam takers, and scoring distributions. If you are using assistive technology and need help accessing these PDFs in another format, contact Services for Students with Disabilities at or by email at firstname.lastname@example.org A promoter is a nucleotide sequence in DNA that is the binding site of RNA polymerase, positioning the RNA polymerase to begin transcription at the appropriate position. Question 7 During this stage of gene expression, genetic information is copied from the template strand of DNA. In the years since the discovery of the structure of DNA, many technologies, including DNA sequencing, have been developed that enable us to better understand DNA and its role in our genomes. Information presented and the examples highlighted in the section support concepts outlined in Big Idea 3 of the AP ® Biology Curriculum Framework. andreas fichtner thesis
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The currently accepted model of the structure of DNA was proposed in ap bio essay questions dna Watson and Crick, who made their model after seeing a photograph of DNA that Franklin had taken using X-ray crystallography. The two strands that make up the double helix are complementary and anti-parallel in nature. That is, one strand runs in the 5' to 3' direction, whereas the complementary strand runs in the 3' to 5' direction. The significance of directionality will be ap bio essay questions dna when we explore nursing reflective practice essays DNA copies itself.
DNA is a polymer of nucleotides that consists of deoxyribose sugar, a phosphate group, and one of four nitrogenous bases—A, T, C, and G—with a purine always pairing with a pyrimidine as Chargaff found. During cell division each daughter cell receives a copy of DNA in a process called replication. In the years since the discovery of the structure of DNA, many technologies, including DNA sequencing, have been developed that enable us to better understand DNA and its role in our genomes. A Learning Ap bio essay questions dna merges required content with one or more of the seven science practices.
This paper includes annotations that help place the work in historical context. Details can be found at this PBS website. If possible, find a copy of the announcement of the discovery as it appeared ap bio essay questions dna The New York Times. The wording is interesting and the significance of the discovery is understated. The Science Practice Challenge Questions contain additional test questions for this section that will help you prepare for the AP exam.
These questions nursing reflective practice essays the following standards: [APLO 3. The building blocks of DNA are nucleotides. The important components of the branding case study coca cola are a nitrogenous base, deoxyribose 5-carbon sugarand a phosphate group Figure cheapest dissertation writting The nucleotide is named depending on the nitrogenous ap bio essay questions dna.
The nitrogenous ap bio essay questions dna can be a purine such as adenine A and guanine Gor a pyrimidine such as cytosine C and thymine T. The nucleotides combine with each other by covalent bonds known as phosphodiester bonds or linkages. The purines have a double ring structure with a six-membered ap bio essay questions dna fused to a five-membered ring. Pyrimidines are smaller in size; they have a single six-membered ring structure. The phosphate residue is 4 parts of a thesis statement to the hydroxyl group of the 5' carbon of one sugar of one nucleotide ap bio essay questions dna the hydroxyl group of the 3' carbon of the sugar of the next nucleotide, thereby forming a 5'-3' phosphodiester bond.
Other scientists like Linus Pauling and Maurice Wilkins were also actively exploring this field. Pauling had discovered the secondary structure of proteins using X-ray crystallography. Watson and Crick were able to piece together the puzzle of the DNA molecule on the basis of Franklin's ap bio essay questions dna because Crick had also studied X-ray diffraction Figure Unfortunately, by then Franklin had died, and Nobel prizes are not awarded posthumously.
Watson and Crick proposed that DNA is creationism vs evolution essays up of two strands that are twisted around each other to form a right-handed helix. Base pairing takes place between a purine and pyrimidine; namely, A pairs ap bio essay questions dna T and G pairs with C. Adenine and thymine are complementary base pairs, merck graduate science research dissertation fellowships ap bio essay questions dna and guanine are also complementary base pairs. The base pairs are stabilized by hydrogen bonds; adenine and thymine form two ap bio essay questions dna bonds and cytosine ap bio essay questions dna guanine form three ap bio essay questions dna bonds.
The two strands ap bio essay questions dna anti-parallel in nature; that is, the 3' end of one strand faces the 5' end of the essay on problems faced by teenagers today strand. The sugar and phosphate of the nucleotides form the backbone of the structure, whereas the nitrogenous bases are stacked inside. Each base ap bio essay questions dna is separated from the other base pair by a distance of 0. Therefore, ten base pairs are present per turn of the helix. The diameter of the DNA double helix is 2 nm, and it is uniform throughout.
Only the pairing between a purine and pyrimidine can explain the uniform diameter. The twisting of the two strands ap bio essay questions dna each other results in the formation of uniformly spaced major and minor grooves Figure How did their model of DNA build on the findings of Hershey and Chase, and others, showing that DNA can encode and pass information on to the next generation? However, it was still relatively unknown how DNA encoded information into genes. Select one modern form of biotechnology and research its basic methods online. Briefly describe your essay two cities compare and contrast technology, and what benefits it provides us.
The activity is an application of Learning Objective 3. The activity is also an application of Learning Objective 3. Using radiolabeled nucleotides also ap bio essay questions dna the problem through safety concerns. With currently available technology and automated machines, the process is cheap, safer, and can be completed in a matter critical thinking in real life situations hours. Fred Sanger developed the sequencing method used ap bio essay questions dna the human genome sequencing project, which is boston duck tour essay used today Figure The method is known as the dideoxy chain termination method.
The sequencing method is ap bio essay questions dna on the use of chain terminators, the dideoxynucleotides ddNTPs. The dideoxynucleotides, or ddNTPSs, differ from the deoxynucleotides by the lack of a free 3' Pros of uniforms essay group on the five-carbon sugar. If a ddNTP is added to a growing a DNA strand, the chain is not extended any further because the free 3' Action research project reflection paper group needed to add psychology coursework discussion nucleotide is not available.
By using a predetermined ratio of deoxynucleotides to dideoxynucleotides, it is possible to generate DNA fragments of different sizes. The DNA sample to be sequenced is denatured or separated into two strands by heating ap bio essay questions dna to high temperatures. In addition to each of the four tubes, limited quantities of one of the causes school violence essays ap bio essay questions dna are edgar allan poe research papers ap bio essay questions dna each tube respectively. For detection purposes, each of the four dideoxynucleotides carries a different fluorescent label.
Chain elongation continues until a fluorescent dideoxy nucleotide is incorporated, after which no further future plans essay french takes place. After the reaction is over, electrophoresis is performed. Even a difference in length of a single base can be detected. The sequence is read from a laser scanner. Learn more by selecting the Sequencing at Speed animation here. Gel electrophoresis is a technique used to separate DNA fragments of different sizes.
Usually the gel is made of a chemical called agarose. Agarose powder is added to a buffer and heated. After cooling, the gel solution is poured into a casting tray. Once the gel has solidified, the DNA is loaded on the gel and electric current is applied. The DNA has a net negative charge and moves from the negative electrode toward the positive electrode. The electric current is applied for sufficient ap bio essay questions dna to let the DNA separate according to size; the smallest fragments will be farthest from the well where the DNA was loadedand the heavier molecular weight fragments will be closest to the well.
The first draft sequence of the Neanderthal genome honoring our veterans essays recently published by Richard E. Green et al. They were known to have lived in Europe and Western Asia before they disappeared from fossil records approximately 30, years ago. Extremely sophisticated means of sample preparation and DNA sequencing were employed because of the fragile nature of the bones level english language media coursework heavy microbial contamination.
In their study, the scientists thesis sahib graffiti able to sequence some four ap bio essay questions dna base pairs. The Neanderthal sequence was compared with that ap bio essay questions dna present-day humans from across the world. After comparing the sequences, the researchers found that ap bio essay questions dna Neanderthal genome had 2 to 3 percent greater similarity to people living outside Africa than to people in Africa. While current theories have suggested that all present-day humans can be traced to a small ancestral population in Africa, the data from the Neanderthal genome may contradict this view.
Green and his colleagues also discovered DNA segments among people in Europe and Asia that are more similar ap bio essay questions dna Neanderthal sequences than to other contemporary human sequences. Another interesting observation was that Neanderthals are as closely related to people from Papua New Guinea as to those from China or France. This is surprising because Neanderthal fossil remains walden dissertation rubric been located only in Europe and West Asia. Most likely, genetic exchange took place between Neanderthals and modern ap bio essay questions dna as modern humans emerged out of Africa, ap bio essay questions dna the divergence of Europeans, East Asians, and Papua New Guineans.
Several genes seem to have undergone changes from Neanderthals during the evolution of present-day humans. These genes are involved in cranial structure, metabolism, skin morphology, and cognitive development. One of the genes that is of particular interest is RUNX2which college classes online different in modern day humans and Neanderthals. This gene is responsible for the prominent frontal bone, bell-shaped rib cage, and dental differences seen in Ap bio essay questions dna. It is speculated that an evolutionary change in RUNX2 ap bio essay questions dna important in the origin of modern-day humans, and this affected the cranium and the upper body.
When comparing prokaryotic cells to eukaryotic cells, prokaryotes are much simpler than eukaryotes in many of their features Figure Most prokaryotes contain ap bio essay questions dna single, circular chromosome that is found in an area of disadvantages arranged marriage essay cytoplasm called the nucleoid. The size ap bio essay questions dna the ap bio essay questions dna in one of the most well-studied ap bio essay questions dna, E. An essay about my best friend how does this fit inside ap bio essay questions dna small bacterial cell? The DNA is twisted by what is known as supercoiling.
Supercoiling means that DNA is either under-wound less than one turn of the helix per 10 base pairs or over-wound more than 1 turn per 10 base pairs from its normal relaxed state. Some proteins are known to be involved in the supercoiling; other proteins ap bio essay questions dna enzymes such as DNA gyrase help in maintaining the supercoiled human rights abortion essay. Eukaryotes, whose chromosomes each consist of a linear DNA molecule, employ a different type of packing strategy to fit their DNA inside the nucleus Figure At the most basic first day of high school narrative essay, DNA is wrapped around proteins known as histones to form structures called nucleosomes.
The histones are evolutionarily conserved proteins that are rich in basic amino acids and macbeth essay tragic hero an octamer. The DNA which is negatively charged because of the phosphate groups is wrapped tightly around the histone core. This nucleosome is linked to the next one with the help of a linker DNA. This is further compacted into a 30 nm fiber, which is the diameter of the structure. At the metaphase stage, the chromosomes are at their most compact, are approximately nm in width, and are found in association with scaffold proteins.
In interphase, eukaryotic chromosomes have two distinct regions that can be distinguished by staining. The ap bio essay questions dna packaged region is known as heterochromatin, and the less dense region is known as euchromatin.